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新人教版高中英语必修一知识

来源:中华大课堂浏览数:6717 

Welcome Unit 1


Welcome Unit

Part one Vocabulary

1. exchangexchange student 交换生

exchange A for B 以A交换B:把A兑换成B

exchange sth. with sb. 与某人交流/交换某物

exchange opinions/ideas/views交流意见/想法/看法

2. design

1) n. 设计;图案;构思;打算,意图。

make designs for ......做设计

by design(=on purpose)故意地

2) vt.设计,构思;计划;意欲。

design sth. for... 为...设计

be designed to do... 在做...用于做...

3. anxious adj. 焦虑的不安的

be anxious for sb./ about sth. 某人/某事担心

be anxious for...渴望...

be anxious (for sb.) to do sth. 渴望某人某事

be anxious that... 渴望...

4. annoyed adj. 恼怒的生气的

be annoyed with sb.生某人的气

be annoyed at/about sth.因某事生气

be annoyed to do做...感到生气

5. senior adj. 级别(或地位)高的 n. 较年长的人

senior high (school)高中

be senior to sb. 比某人的地位/职位

6. impress vt. 使钦佩……留下深刻的好印象 vi. 留下印象引人注目

have a(n) ...impression of... ······有······印象

leave/make a(n) ...impression on sb. 给某人留下······印象

(be) under the impression that... 以为······(通常指)误认为······

7. concentrate on 集中精力于

8. leave...alone 不打扰不惊动

9. explore vt.& vi. 探索勘探

exploration n. 探索,探测 explorer n. 探险者;勘探者;考察者

10. confident adj. 自信的有把握的

be confident about ......信心

be confident of (doing) sth.对(做······把握

be confident that... 确信······

11. look forward to 盼望期待

12. organise vt. 组织;筹备;安排;组建 vi. 组建成立

organisation n. 组织团体机构

Part two Grammar

句子成分和基本句型

一、句子成分

构成句子的各个部分叫作句子成分。句子成分有主要成分与次要成分之分。主要成分是主语(The Subject)和谓语(The Predicate),次要成分有表语宾语(The Object)、(The Predicative)、定语(The Attribute)、状语(The Adverbial)、补足语(The Complement)和同位语(The Appositive)。

(一)主语

主语表示句子所要说明或描述的人或事物,一般为名词(短语)、代词、数词、动名词(短语)、不定式(短语)或从句,置于句首。

The students are playing basketball now.

Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

(二)谓语

谓语说明或描述主语的行为动作或所处的状态,由动词或动词短语充当,位于主语之后。

You may keep the pen for two weeks at most.

He didn't listen to the teacher’s advice.

(三)表语

表语说明主语的身份、特征或状态,在系动词(be、become、get、look、grow、turn、seem等)之后,可以由名词、代词、形容词、分词、不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)、介词短语以及从句充当。

I'm an astronaut. She looks pale.

My job is teaching English. (四)宾语

宾语有单宾语、双宾语、复合宾语等。双宾语又分为直接宾语和间接宾语。宾语可以由名词(短语)、代词、数词、名词化的形容词、不定式(短语)、动名词、从句等充当。

He wrote a poem.

She enjoys living in China.

(五)宾语补足语

有些及物动词除有一个宾语外,还要有一个宾语补足语。才能使句子的意义完整。一般结构为:及物动词(如 make、see、find等)+宾语+宾语补足语。

注意:“make/see/find…sb. do sth. ”结构变为被动形式时,不定式符号to要还原。

New technologies make life much more easy and convenient.

He was seen to rush into the classroom. (六)定语

修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。定语多放在被修饰部分的前面,但由多个词构成的定语部分则通常放在被修饰部分的后面。

The red bike is mine. They made paper flowers.

The boy in the classroom is John.

(七)状语

修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分称为状语。状语的位置非常灵活:修饰形容词、副词时通常放在被修饰词之前;通常在句子的基本结构之后;强调时放在句首。

He knows a lot. She is lying in the bed thinking.

When I was young, I often listened to the radio.

(八)同位语

同位语通常在名词或代词之后,与其并列并对其加以说明。

We have two children, a boy and a girl.

The news that he had passed the exam delighted his mother. 二、五种基本句型

(一)主语+不及物动词(S+V)

此类句子都有一个共同特点:句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思,都是不及物动词, 后面可以跟副词、介词短语以及表示时间、地点、方式等的状语从句等。

The car won't start. They laughed.

(二)主语+系动词+表语(S+V+P)

一些动词单独作谓语时不能表达一个完整的意思,需要接上表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语。这类动词叫系动词.

The flowers smell sweet. Tom looks thin.

(三)主语+及物动词+宾语(S+V+O)

此类谓语动词都有实际意义,都是由主语产生的动作,但后面必须加一个宾语,即动作的承受者。

They ate what was left over. She hates spiders.

(四)主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语(S+V+IO+DO)

有些动词可以有两个宾语。通常情况下间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后;有时也可把间接宾语置于直接宾语后,此时间接宾语前需加介词 for 或to.

She cooked her husband a delicious meal. =She cooked a delicious meal for her husband.

Give me the pen, please. =Give the pen to me, please.

(五)主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(S+V+O+C)

句子谓语为及物动词,有时只跟一个宾语不能表达完整意思,需要用宾语补足语对宾语进行补充说明。宾语补足语可以由名词、形容词、副词、介词短语和非谓语动词等充当。

They made her happy.

She kept us waiting for her answer for over a week.

(六)主语+不及物动词+状语(S+V+A)

句子谓语为不及物动词,需要跟状语对谓语动词进行补充说明或限定。状语常常是副词、介词短语、非谓语动词等。

The children stayed in room. John has gone to buy books.

(七)主语+谓语+宾语+状语(S+V+O+A)

句子谓语为及物动词,跟宾语后句意还不完整,需要跟状语进行补充说明或限定。状语常常是副词、介词短语、非谓语动词等。

They know us very well. They put the dish here.

(八)there be. . .

there be 后面的名词是句子的主语,属倒装结构,其中be 动词之前有时可加上 seem to、appear to等。

注意:(1)在there be句型中,be的单复数与离它最近的名词的单复数保持一致。(就近原则)

(2)there be 表示存在;有。这里的there没有实际意义,不可与副词 there那里混淆。此结构后跟名词,表示(某处)有某事物

There is a cup on the desk.

There are some apples in the bowl.

Part three Sentence

1. What if no one talks to me?要是没人跟我说话怎么办?

What if...? 要是……会怎么样呢?

常用来征求对方的意见。

"What…if…?" 以下几种用法:

(1)表示假设,意为假若……怎么办?”“要是……将会怎么样?,if后的句子可用陈述语气(用一般现在时),也可用虚拟语气(用一般过去时或shouldn't+动词原形

(2)表示邀请或建议,意为“如果……怎么样?如果……如何?”

(3)表示不重要,此时常与so连用,意为就算……那又怎样?

2. 双重否定

You'll never see me without a book or a pen. 你永远不会看到我不拿书或笔。

"never … without..."双重否定结构,表示肯定含义,意思是没有……就不……”。常见的双重否定结构还有:no/not/hardly...without…没有……不;除……

cannot…too…无论怎样……也不为过

3. I wish I didn't have to do this! 我希望我不必这样做!

wish+ (that) . . . (虚拟宾语从句)

wish后面接that引导的宾语从句,若从句表示的内容与事实相反或者是难以实现的愿望,从句谓语动词多用虚拟语气形式。从句谓语动词形式如下:

(1)与现在事实不符,用一般过去时(be用were) ;

(2)与过去事实不符,用过去完成时;

(3)与将来事实不符,用“would/should/could/might + do”。


Unit 1

***重点单词***


1.volunteer n. 志愿者

(1)做志愿者:work as a volunteer

(2)做志愿工作:do volunteer work

(3)做一名志愿者绝不是容易的事.

Being a volunteer is anything but an easy job.


volunteer v.自愿做; 义务做

(1)自愿做某事volunteer to do sth

(2)自愿为某事效劳volunteer for sth

——voluntary自愿的、志愿的


2.debate vi/vt辩论;争论

(1)关于......进行辩论 debate on/over

(2)和......辩论 debate with sb


debate n.辩论;争论

(1)在争论中under debate

(2)人们对校车安全问题议论纷纷。

There has been much debate on the safety of school buses.


3.prefer更喜欢

(1)更喜欢某事 prefer sth.

(2)更喜欢做某事 prefer to do/doing sth

(4)喜欢A多于B   prefer A to B

(5)比起做B更喜欢做A

prefer doing A to doing B

prefer to do A rather than B

(6)比起徒步旅行,许多男孩更喜欢踢足球。

Many boys prefer playing football to hiking

Many boys prefer to play football rather than hike.


4.content n.内容;目录;主题;满足

(1)在内容和形式上 in content and form

(2)尽情地;心满意足地 to ones heart content


content adj. 满足的;满意的;

(1)满足的表情 a content expression

(2)对......感到满足、满意 be content with/

(3)愿意做某事 be content to do sth


content vt. 使满意

使某人、自己对......满意 content sb with sth


5.suitable adj. 合适的;适用的

(1)对......适合的 be suitable for sth/doing sth

(2)适合做某事 be suitable to do sth

(3)这些鞋不适合在乡下散步。

These shoes are not suitable for walking in the country..

(4)我认为我不适合这个岗位。

I don’t think I should be suitable for the post.


6.challenge 挑战;艰巨任务

(1)做某事的挑战 the change of doing sth

(2)面对挑战 face a challenge

(3)迎接挑战 meet a challenge

(4)接受挑战 accept/take up a challenge

(6)就我而言,我下定决心接受挑战。

As far as I’m concerned, I’m determined to take up/accept the challenge.


challenge v.t 向(某人)挑战

向某人挑战某事 challenge sb to do sth


——challenging adj. 挑战性的,考验能力


7.confusing难以理解的;不清楚的

(1)觉得......令人困惑find sth confusing

(2)对......来说令人困惑的 be confusing for sb


confuse——使糊涂;使迷惑;

(1)使某人困惑confuse sb

(2)把和弄混confuse A with B


confused——糊涂的;迷惑的

be confused about... 对......感到困惑


confusion——困惑;混淆

in confusion 困囧地


8.graduate vi/vt 毕业;获得学位, n 毕业生

我们祝贺他从哈佛大学毕业了。

We congratulated him on having graduated from   Harvard University.

   

--graduation n.毕业

那是我们毕业后的第一份工作。

It was my first job after graduation.


9.recommend vt. 建议;推荐;介绍

( 1)向某人推荐、介绍某物 recommend sth to sb

( 2)推荐某人做(某职位)recommend sb for

(3)推荐某人作为...... recommend sb as

(4)建议做某事 recommend doing sth

(5)他建议我们读一读那部小说。

He recommended that we should read the novel.


10.quit v. 停止;戒掉;离开(工作职位、学校等)

(1)休学、退学 quit school

(2)辞掉工作 quit one’s job

(3)离职 quit office

(4)戒烟 quit smoking

(5)那位组长经常在晚上七点左右就停止学习去散步。

The group leader often quits studying to take a walk at about seven pm.


11.responsible adj.负责的;有责任的

(1)对......、负责 be responsible for

他仍然觉得对病人的死亡负有责任。

He still felt responsible for the patient’ s death.


--- responsibility n. 责任;义务

(1)负责做某事

take the responsibility of/for doing sth

(2)有做某事的责任

have a/the responsibility to do sth


12.schedule. n. 工作计划;日程安排; v. 安排;预定

(1)按预定时间 on schedule

(2)提前 ahead of schedule

(3)落后于预定时间 behind the schedule

(4)你已经安排了考试日程吗?

Have you made the examination schedule.


13.expert n.专家;行家   

(1)在......方面是行家 an expert on/at /in

(2)西蒙不仅是我们的校长,也是一名教育专家。

Simon is not only our headmaster, but also an expert in education.


expert adj 熟练的;内行的;专家的

(1)在......方面在行

be expert at /in doing sth.

(2)琳达在寻找有用的学习信息方面很在行。

Linda is expert in/at finding useful information about study.


14.attract vt.   吸引;引起......的注意

(1)吸引很大的兴趣 attract a lot of interest

(2)吸引某人的注意 attract one’s attention

(3)喜爱 be attracted to...

(4)被......吸引be attracted by...

----attraction n. 有吸引力的事物

----attractive adj. 吸引人的

对孩子们有吸引力

be attractive to children


***重点短语***


1.clean up. 打扫(或清除)干净

(1)除去、扫除 clean off

(2)我打算在这个夏天毕业后把我的旧书清理干净。

I plan to clean up my old books   after I graduate this summer.

更多:

( 1)整理、收拾: tidy up

( 2)整理,放晴 clear up


2.sign up(for sth )报名(参加课程)

(1)签名 sign one’s name

(2)签到,签退 sign in/out

(3)示意某人做某事sign to sb to do sth

(5)要报名成为会员,请填写这张表格。

To sign up for membership, please fill in the form.

---sign n.迹象

......的迹象 a sign of...


3.focus on... 集中;特别关注

(1)把心思集中在 focus one’s mind on...

(2)聚精会神于focus one’s attention on...

(3)今天,我们要重点讨论师生之间的新关系。

Today, we are going to focus on the new relationship between teachers and students.

更多:

(1)注意 留意 pay attention to...

(2)集中于;专心于concentrate on...


4. be addicted to... 对......入迷

( 1)习惯于 be used to...

(2)注意 pay attention to...

(3)期盼 look forward to...

(4)致力于 devote oneself to...

提示:这几个短语里的to均为介词。


***重点句型***

1.so that 引导状语从句

(1)我会自己想方法改进,这样我明年就能入选球队了。

I’ll find a way to improve on my own so that I can make the team next year.

(2)查尔斯认为很多人想要赚许多钱,因为这样的话他们就不会再有任何烦恼了?

Charles believes that many people want to earn a lot of money so that they will not have any worries.


2.make it+adj+不定式

(1)但是花太多时间在网上是不健康的,使得很难集中注意力在生活中的其他事情上。

But spending too much time online is unhealthy and makes it very difficult to focus on other things.

(2)计算机技术让很多人可以在家里工作。

Computer technology makes it possible for many people to work at home.


3.这/那是因为   This/that/it is because

(1)I guess its because they are adults and can’t understand me.

我想是因为他们都是成年人了,不能理解我。

(2)He practise speaking English every day, at least three hours a day. This is why he makes great progress in English.

= The reason why he makes great progress in English is that he practise speaking English every day, at least three hours a day.

他天天练习说英语,每天至少三个小时。这是他英语进步的很大的原因。


4.too ...to...太......而不能......

(1)There is a girl I like in my class, but I’m too shy to talk to her.

班上有个我喜欢的女孩,但是我太害羞了,不敢和他说话。

(2)You are too young to understand such things.

你太年轻,不懂得这样的事情。



Unit 2

***重点单词***

必修一Unit 2 Travelling Around


1.apply vi申请;请求;vt 应用;涂(油漆、乳剂)

<1>申请 apply for

<2>向某人申请某物 apply to sb for sth

<3>把某物应用到某物中 apply sth to sth

<4>致力于 apply oneself to


——application. n. 应用;用途;申请

<1>求职信 a job application

<2>申请信 a letter of application


---applicant. 申请者


2.pack收拾(行礼) 包装;打包行李   n   纸包;包裹

<1>一包,一帮,一群 a pack of

<2>将装箱打包 pack sth up

<3>The walk is expected to last all day, so bring a ( pack ) packd lunch.


3.amazing adj 令人惊奇的;令人惊喜的

让人吃惊的,古代的认们能够建造出如此伟大的建筑。(it作形式主语)

It is amazing that the ancient people could have built such great architecture.


---amaze v.t. 使吃惊;惊讶的;


---amazed adj. 惊奇的;惊喜的

<1>对......大为吃惊的be amazed at/by/that

<2>因做某事而感到吃惊,惊讶 be amazed to do sth


---amazement n 惊异;惊愕

<1>令某人惊奇的是 to one’s amazement

<2>惊讶地 in amazement


4.arrange vt/vi安排,筹划

<1>安排做某事 arrange to do sth

<2>为某人安排某事 arrange sth for sb

The books were all neatly in place, carefully arranged.


---arrangement n.安排,筹备

<1>为......做安排、准备 make arrangements for

<2>谈妥,达成协议 arrive at an arrangement


5.recognize vt 辨别出,承认;认可;认识;认知

<1>通过......认出...... recognize....by/from

<2>把......看作...... recognize ..as

<3>大家都承认他是比赛中的最佳选手。

Everyone recognized him as/to be the best player in the match


——recognition识别;承认,认出

认不出来   beyond/out of recognition.


6.type n类型;种类

<1>这种 那种类型的 of this/that type

<2>一种 a type of

<3>各种类型的 all types of

<4>是某人喜欢的类型 be one’s type


type vi/vt 打字

把......键入......(计算机)type ...into ...


7.admire vt钦佩;赞赏;赞美;羡慕

<1>欣赏某人做某事 admire sb for sth

I admire him for his success in his business.


----admiration n. 钦佩;受人钦佩的人、物

We expressed admiration for Shaw as a young coach.


---admirable adj. 令人羡慕的


8.contact vt.联络;联系

通过电子邮件/电话与某人联系

contact sb by email/telephone


contact n. 联系;接触

<1>与某人取得联系   make contact with

<2>与某人保持联系 keep in contact with sb

<3>使某人接触某物 bring sb into contact with sb

<4>使某人失去联系 lose contact with sb


9. credit n. 信任;学分;赞扬;信贷

<1>为某人带来荣誉;某人值得赞扬;在某人名下 to one’s credit

<2>获得学分 receive a credit

<3>因为......而获得赞扬或表扬 receive a credit for

<4>信用卡 a credit card


10. detail细节,详情

<1>详细地   in detail

<2>详细叙述,逐一说明 go into detail


----detailed adj. 详细的


11. request n. 请求;要求

<1>要求得到...... make a request for

<2>按照要求 by request

<3>应某人的要求 at sb’s request


request vt. 请求;要求

<1>要求某人做某事 request sb to do sth

<2>向某人索要某事 request sth from sb

我的老师要求我经常使用英语。

My teacher requested me to use/that I should use English frequently.


12. view n.风景;视野;观点;见解

<1>在视线范围内 in view

<2>不在视野 中 out of view

<3>进入视野 come into view

<4>对......一览无余 have a good view of...

<5>乍一看;初见 at first view

<6>鉴于,考虑到,由于   in view of


view vt 观看;注视;考虑

把......看作......view ...as...


13.sight. n 景象;看见;视力;视野

<1>进入视野,出现在眼前,看见 come into sight

<2>看不见,消失 lose sight of/out of sight

<3>失明 lose one’s sight

<4>在视野内,看得见 in/ within sight

<5>初见,乍一看 at first sight

<6>一看见...... at the sight of...


14.comment v. 评论

<1>对某事加以评论

comment on sth; make a comment/ comments on sth


comment n. 评论

<1>不加评论   without comment

<2>她丈夫对她的新发型没做任何评论,这令她有点失望。

Her husband made no comment on/ about her new hair-style, which made her a little disappointed.


***重点短语***


1.take control of...   控制;接管

<1>他虽然已到退休年龄,但仍大权在握。

He’s reached retiring age,but he is still firmly in control.

<2>谁能管住这些淘气的孩子?

Who can take control of these naughty children?

<3>这些孩子自他们的父亲离开后就无法无天了。

The children are completely out of control since their father left.


2. make up   虚构;弥补;形成,组成;化妆;讲和;和好

<1>Five doctors and ten nurses make up the medical team.

The medical team is made up of five doctors and ten nurses.

<2>汤姆编故事来逗乐他弟弟。

Tom makes up stories to amuse his little brother.

Caroline doesn’t have a gift for music, but she makes up for it with hard work.


<3>Check in 在旅馆登记住宿;住宿;报到;签到;接收并登记。

Check out 结账离开,核实无误。


***重点句型***


全部倒装

<1>Below are two texts about Peru. Look through them quickly.

以下是秘鲁的两篇短文。快速浏览它们。

<2>Especially amazing is the incas’ dry stone method of building.

特别让人惊奇的是印加人的干石建筑法。

句式仿写

<1>这些书中有我最喜爱的故事书。Among the books is my favourite book.


强调句型:

<1>It is for this reason that Spanish is the main official language of Peru.

正是因为如此,西班牙语是秘鲁的主要官方语言。

句式仿写

<2>是我明天要去青岛。

It is I who am going to Qingdao tomorrow.


as引导的从句

课本原句

<1>Enjoy the beautiful countryside as you spend a day driving along the new high way connecting Cusco to Lake Titicaca.

沿着连接库斯科到的的喀喀湖的新公路,你可以欣赏美丽的乡村。

仿写

<2>当我到达学校门口时,.....

Just as I got to the school gate, I realized I had left my book in the cafe,


句式扩展

<3>虽然你聪明,...

Clever as you are,I think you will fail if you don’t work hard,

<4>据今天的报纸报道,那位著名的音乐家下周要来我们的城市举办音乐会。

As is reported in today’s newspaper, the famous musician is to give a concert in our city.

3. Can hardly/can’t wait to do迫不及待做某事

<5>我听说这是一个令人惊叹的景象,我迫不及待的想去。

I have heard that it is an amazing sight, and I can’t wait to go.

<6>毕业生迫不及待地要离开学校去工作。

The graduates can’t wait to leave school to work.


Unit 3


***Unit 3 Sports and fitness***


***重点单词***


honour n. 荣誉;尊敬;荣幸

(1)in honour of 为了表示对……的敬意;为了纪念……

(2)have the honour to do/of doing... 有幸做……

=be/feel honoured to do/of doing... 为做……而感到荣幸

(3)It's an honour to do...   很荣幸做……

honour v. 尊敬(某人); 给予表扬(或奖励、头衔、称号)

(4)honour sb.with sth.for...   因……授予某人某物

(5)be honoured as...   被尊称为……

→honourable adj.光荣的;高尚的


determine vt.决定;判决

(1)determine to do...   决定做……(表示动作)

(2)be determined to do...   决心做……(表示状态)

(3)determine on/upon   决定

→determination n.决心;决定

with determination 坚决地;果断地

→determined adj.   坚决的;坚定的;果断的


injure vt. (使)受伤;损害

→injured adj.受伤的;有伤的

(1)the injured 伤员

→injury n.伤害;损伤

(2)do sb.an injury/do an injury to sb.   害某人


strength n.力量;体力

(1)build up one's strength/body 强身健体

(2)strengths and weaknesses 优点和缺点

(3)The strength of...is that...   ……的优点是……

→strong adj. 强壮的

→strengthen vt. 加强;巩固


fail v.失败;不及格

(1)fail to do...   未能做……

(2)fail in doing sth ...   在(做)……失败

→failure n.失败;失败的人(或事物)

(3)end in failure 以失败告终

[易错点拨] 

(1)failure表示抽象意义的“失败”时,不可数;表示具体意义“失败的人或事”时,则可数。

(2)failure后可接不定式作定语,但不接of doing...。


compete vi. 竞争;对抗

(1)compete in   参加……比赛;在……方面竞争

(2)compete for 为……而竞争

(3)compete with/against...for... 为争取……而与……对抗/竞争

→competition n.竞争

→competitive adj.竞争的;有竞争性的

→competitor n.竞争者


pretend vi.&vt.假装;装扮

pretend to be+n./adj. 假装是……

pretend to do sth.   假装做某事

pretend to be doing sth.   假装正在做某事

pretend to have done sth.   假装已经做了某事

pretend that ...   假装……

[拓展] 

和pretend有类似用法(后接to do/to be doing/to have done)的动词还有happen,appear,seem,claim等及be said to结构。


diet n.规定饮食;日常饮食   vi.节食

a balanced diet   平衡膳食

be on a diet 节食

go on a diet 节食


stress n.压力;紧张;重音

(1)under stress 在压力之下

(2)put sb.under great stress 使某人感到沉重的压力

(3)lay/place/put stress on sth.   强调某事物

stress vt. 强调;重读;使焦虑不安 vi.焦虑不安

stress the importance of ... 强调……的重要性

→stressful adj.紧张的;有压力的


positive adj.积极的;正面的;乐观的;肯定的

(1)on the positive side  从好的方面看

(2)be positive about sth.   对某事有信心/乐观

(3)be positive that... 对……有把握;信心


***重点短语***


come along 跟随;到达;进步;赶快;出现

come up with 想出;提出

come about 发生

come across 穿过(路、桥);(偶然)遇见;发现

come out 出来;(书等)出版;发行

come to 苏醒;总计;达到;谈到

When it comes to...   当谈到……


work out 锻炼;计算出;解决;理解;(有预期的)结果

work on 从事……;继续……

work at 从事,致力于……

work as 充当,作为……而工作

at/out of work 在工作/失业


make a difference 对……有作用/有影响

make use of 利用;使用

make it 获得成功;准时到达

manage it 能做到


set an example (for sb) (为...某人)树立榜样

follow sb.'s example 学某人的样子

be an example to sb. 成为某人的榜样

for example 例如


fall apart 破裂;破碎;崩溃

fall down    摔倒

fall off 从……掉下来

fall behind 落后,跟不上

fall over 跌倒,绊倒

fall into 养成,染上

fall out (头发等)脱落;吵架


[语境助记] 


A banana skin fell off the table.The little girl didn't see it.She stepped on it and fell over.What's worse,her bowl broke into pieces.Quickly,her mother ran in and picked her up.If she falls into the habit of depending on parents in everything,the girl will fall behind others in time.


香蕉皮从桌子上掉下来。小女孩没有看见。她踩到上面滑倒了。更糟的是,她的碗摔成了碎片。她妈妈立刻跑进来扶起她。如果小女孩养成事事依赖父母的习惯,她迟早会落后于其他孩子的。


lose heart 丧失信心;泄气

(1)put one's heart into ... 一心扑在……上

learn sth. by heart 背诵;记牢……

strike ... into one's heart   使……刻骨铭心

from the bottom of sb.'s heart   从某人的心底

(2)heart and soul 全心全意地


give up 放弃;投降

give away   分发;赠送;泄露

give back 归还

give off 发出(光、热、声音、气味等)

give out 分发;用完;耗尽

give in 屈服;投降;让步;上交


make sense 有道理;合乎情理;表达清楚

(1)make sense of 理解;明白

make no sense   没意义

(2)in a sense   在某一方面;就某种意义来说

in no sense   决不(用在句首时,句子用部分倒装)

common sense   常识

There is no/little sense in doing sth.   做某事没道理


make a difference 有作用或影响;有差别,造成影响,起作用

make some difference to 对……有些关系

make no/little difference 没影响,不重要

tell the difference between...and...   辨别出……


rather than 而不是

(1)rather than 而不是

rather sb.than sb. 不想做别人要去做的事

(2)or rather 更确切地说;更准确地讲

(3)would rather do sth.than do sth.would do sth.rather than do sth.prefer to do sth.rather than do sth.宁愿……而不愿……;与其……倒不如……

(4)would rather +从句用过去时,表示对现在或将来的虚拟用过去完成时,表示对过去的虚拟


cut out 停止做(或使用、食用);剪下

cut in 插嘴,打断讲话

cut across 抄近路穿过;横越

cut down 砍倒;缩减

cut off 切断;割掉;截断(退路等)

cut up 切碎;伤心


now and then 有时,偶尔

now and then   有时;偶尔

sometimes 有时

at times 有时;偶尔

occasionally 偶尔

once in a while 偶尔,有时


compare...with/to ……与……比较


***重点句型***


It's up to sb. to do sth.做某事由某人来决定。

up to 多达……

be up to (doing)sth.      正在(做)……;从事于……;胜任做……

up to now      到目前为止


when引导时间状语从句,意为“当……时候”。


when,while和as都可引导时间状语从句

其具体含义和用法如下:

(1)when“当……时候”,可与延续性动词或短暂性动词连用;从句动作可以发生在主句动作之前、之后或与主句动作同时发生

(2)while “当……时候”,一般只可与延续性动词连用,从句动作与主句动作同时发生

(3)as “一边……一边……”常与延续性动词连用,从句动作与主句动作同时或几乎同时发生

①When you apply for a job,you must present your credentials.

当你申请工作时,你必须递交你的有关证书。

②Mary made coffee while her guests were finishing their meal.

客人们就要吃完的时候,玛丽去煮咖啡了。

③As he grew older,he became less active.

随着他逐渐长大 ,他变得不那么活泼了。


[名师点津] 

如果主句表示的是短暂性动作,而从句用延续性动词的进行时表示在一段时间内正在进行的动作时,when,while与as可互换使用。

When/While/As I was walking down the street,I came across an old friend.

我正沿着大街走时,碰巧遇到了我的一个老朋友。


even if/though引导让步状语从句,语气较强,此外,if,though,although也可引导让步状语从句;意为“虽然,尽管”。

①If life there was full of hardships,it was also full of joy and excitement.

虽然那儿的生活非常艰苦,但是也非常愉快和令人兴奋的。(这里的if相当于even if)

②Air exists everywhere although we can't see it.

尽管我们看不见空气,但它却无处不在。

③Even though/if I understand what you say,I can't agree with you.

虽然我理解你说的话,但我不同意你的意见。


once引导时间状语从句,意为“一旦……就……”

once在本句中引导时间状语从句,意为“一旦……就……”。如果once引导的从句的主语与主句的主语一致,且从句中的谓语动词含有be动词的某种形式时,或从句为“it be...”形式时,从句中的“主语+be”或“it be”可以省略。

①Once trust is lost,what is left?

一旦失去了信任,还剩下什么呢?

②Once the song is heard,it will never be forgotten.

一旦被听过,这首歌很难被忘记。

③Once seen,the picture is difficult to forget.

一旦看见,这幅画很难被忘记。


Unit 4


***Unit 4 Natural Disasters***


***知识清单***

1. rescue vt.营救;救援

(1)把某人从......营救出来: rescue sb from

rescue n.营救;救援

(2)进行营救: attempt a rescue

(3)设法(实行)营救: make/perform a rescue

(4)他答应在我有危险的时候会来救我。

He promised to come to my rescue if I was in danger.


2. damage vt.损坏、迫害。n.损失;损害

(1)弥补损失: recover a damage

(2)赔偿损失: pay for damage

(3)遭受损失、蒙受损害: suffer damage

(4)洪水对庄稼造成重大的损毁。

The flood did/caused great damage to the crop.


3.survive vi.生存;存活 vt幸存、艰难度过

(1)靠......活下来;靠......生存: survive on

(2)比某人多活......survive sb by

(3)在这次空难中没有人幸免于难。

Nobody survived the disaster.

survivor n. 幸存者;生还者


4. destroy vt. 摧毁;毁灭

(1)你的话会破坏孩子的自信心。

Your words will destroy your child’s confidence.

(2)我们不能再继续破坏环境了。

We can’t continue to destroy the environment.

destruction n. 破坏;毁灭


5.affect vt影响;(疾病)侵袭;深深打动;使感染(疾病)

(1)我们被他的真诚深深打动。

We were affected by his sincerity.

(2)如今科技极大地影响了我们的生活。

Nowadays technology has greatly affected our life.

6.shelter n避难所;居所;庇护 vt 保护 掩蔽 躲避

(1)那棵大树使我们免受大雨的侵袭.

The big tree sheltered us from the heavy rain.

(2)这个计划是为无家可归的人提供住所。

The plan is to provide shelter for the homeless.

effect n. 影响;效果;结果


7.ruin vt. 破坏;毁坏

(1)毁掉某人的希望、健康:ruin ones hope/health

ruin n. 破坏;毁坏

(2)坍塌 fall into ruin

(3)灾难过后,一切都成了废墟。

After the disaster, everything was in ruins.


8.shock n. 震惊;令人震惊的事;休克

(1)文化冲击: culture shock

(2)震惊;吃惊: in shock

shock vt. 使震惊

(3)对......感到吃惊: be shocked at/by...

(4)我们非常震惊地得知我们喜爱的这位作家已经去世。

We were shocked to learn that our favorite writer had passed away


9. trap vt. 使落入险境;是陷入圈套 n 陷阱;险境

(1)用......捕捉;使困于......: trap sb/sth in sth

(2)诱骗某人使之采取某种行动: trap sb into sth/doing

(3)震后,很多人被困于废墟下。

After earthquake, many people were trapped under the ruins.


10. bury vt. 埋葬;安葬

(1)专心于(某事):陷入,沉浸于;藏于:bury … in...

(2)埋头于;专心于 bury oneself in ...

(4)她以手掩面,痛哭起来。

She buried her face in her hands and cried bitterly,


11.effort n. 努力;艰难的尝试;尽力

(1)努力做某事: make an effort/efforts to do sth

(2)不遗余力: spare no effort

(3)值得努力: be worth the effort

(4)毫不费力地: without effort

(5)他努力地说英语。

He spoke in English with effort.


12. suffer vt.遭受;蒙受(因疾病、痛苦、悲伤等)受苦

(1)遭受: suffer from

(2)遭受疼痛: suffer pain

(3)他们公司去年生意亏损。

Their company suffered loss in business last year,

suffering n. 痛苦;苦难


13. supply n.供应量;补给;补给品。

(1)食物供应 food supply

(2)供应不足 in short supply

supply vt.供应;供给

(3)提供给某人某物 supply sb with sth

(4)把某物提供给某人 supply sth to sb

(5)这家商店向顾客提供各种商品。

The shop supplies all kinds of goods to customers.


14. power n. 电力供应;能量;力量;控制力

(1)某人有权、能力 within one’s power

(2)掌权 come into power

(3)有权力做某事 have the power to do sth

(4)停电 power failure

(6)这里没有人有权在文件上签名。

Nobody here has the power to sign the paper.

powerful adj. 强有力的;强大的


15.calm n.镇静的;沉着的

(1)保持冷静: stay/keep/remain calm

她在危险面前能保持镇静。

She can keep calm in the face of danger.

calm   vt. 使平静;使镇静

(2)使某人镇静下来: calm sb down

calmly adv. 平静地;冷静地


16.aid n. 援助;帮助;救援物资

(1)(对某人)实施急救 do/give/offer/perform/carry out first aid

(2)帮某人的忙 come to the aid of sb

(3)为了帮助:in aid of

为了帮助洪灾地区举行了一场音乐会。

A concert was given in aid of the flooded areas.

(4)在......的帮助下: with the aid of


aid v.帮助;援助

(5)帮助某人做某事: aid sb in doing sth/aid sb to do sth

(6)在某方面帮助某人:aid sb with sth


17.sweep vt/vi. 打扫;清扫( swept   swept)

(1)消灭;彻底清除: sweep away

(2)打扫干净,清扫干净: sweep out

(3)席卷;轻易通过:   sweep through

(4)打扫;清扫: sweep up

(5)晚会结束后,她被留下来打扫卫生。

She was left to sweep up after the party.


18.wave n   海浪;波浪

(1)一波......,一阵...... a wave of

wave   vt/vi 挥手;招手

(2)向......挥手: wave at/to ...

她从街对面向我招手。

She waved at me from across the street.

(3)挥手告别: wave off

wavy adj 波浪形的


19. strike vt/vi. 侵袭;突击;击打

(1)打一个男孩: strike a boy

(2)钟敲了十二下 : strike twelve

(3)打击敌人: strike the enemy

(4)某人忽然想起: It strikes sb that…

(5)我忽然想起家里一个人也没有。

It struck me that there was no one at home.

strike   n. 罢工;罢课;袭击

开始罢工、罢课 : be/go on strike


20. deliver. vt递送,传达,发表

(1)发货: deliver the goods

(2)作报告: deliver a speech

(3)接生: deliver a baby

(4)送某人到家: deliver to sb’s house

(5)大卫会一大早起来送报纸。

David would get up early in the morning to deliver newspaper.

delivery n 递送,分娩


21. summary n. 总结;概括;概要

(1)…的摘要、总结: summary of

(2)作总结: make a summary

(3)总的来说,总之: in summary

总之,这次运动取得了巨大的成功。

In summary, the campaign has been a great success.

summarize vt 概述;总结


22. effect n. 影响;结果;效果

(1)实行: bring/ put sth into effect

(2)产生效果: bring about effect

(3)生效;开始实施: come into effect/ take effect

(4)实际上;事实上: in effect

(5)从......起开始生效: with effect from

(6)这反过来又对狼的食物供应产生了影响。

This in turn has effect on the food supply for wolves.

effective adj   有效的;生效的


23. length n. 长;长度

(1)最后,最终: at length

(2)长度: in length.

(3)十分详尽地: at great/full length.

(4)桌子的长度是它的宽度的两倍。

The length of the table is twice its breadth.

lengthen v(使)变长


二、重点短语


1.as if/though 似乎,好像;仿佛

(1)引导的从句所表示的内容若为事实或为事实。可用陈述语气;若为事实相反,应使用虚拟语气。

(2)他老爱说大话,就仿佛他是一位要人似的。

He likes to talk big as if he was an important person.

(3)听起来好像有人在敲门。

It sounds as if/though there is a knock at the door.


2.in the open air 露天;在户外

(1)乘飞机: by air

(2)在传播中: in the air

(3)正在广播: on the air

(4)停止广播: off the air

(5)他正在户外散步。

He is now taking a walk in the open air.


3.on hand 现有(尤指帮助)

(1)交上;提交: hand in

(2)分发: hand out

(3)交出;移交: hand over

(4)交付,传递: hand on

(5)在手边;可能很快发生的: at hand

(6)用手工: by hand

(7)握手: shake hands

(8)手拉手;密切关联: hand in hand

(9)如今的女性非常忙碌。一方面,她们要照顾家庭;另一方面,许多妇女又选择外出工作。

Women today are very busy. On the one hand, they have to take care of their families; on the other hand, many women choose to go out to work.


三、重点句型


1. 主语+be+adj+(+for sb ) +to do


课本原句

(1)水、食物和电都很难获得.

Water, food, and electricity were hard to get.


句式仿写

(2)火山喷发本身的确是很壮观的,我永远也忘不了我第一次看见火山喷发时的情景。

The volcanic eruption itself is really exciting to watch and I shall never forget my first sight of one.


2. be doing……when…正在做......,这时......


课本原句

(1)我和我的三个孩子吃早餐的时候。水开始充满了我的家。

I was having breakfast with my three children when water started filling my home.

(2)我正往家走,老师好心地让我搭个便车。

I was walking home when my teacher kindly gave me a lift.


句式拓展

(3)她正要举手,这时下课了。

She was about to raise her hand when class was over.


Unit 5


***Unit 5 Languages around the world***


***知识清单***

一、短语

1.refer to   指的是;描述;提到;查阅

2.ups and downs   浮沉;兴衰;荣辱

3.date back (to...)   追溯到

4.the attitude to/towards   ……对……的态度

5.pay attention   to   注意

6.be of great importance   很重要

7.be known for   因……而出名

8.lead to   导致

9.be connected with   和……有联系

10.play a...role in   起着……的作用

11.point of view 观点;看法

12.relate to   与……相关;涉及;谈到

13.give up   放弃

14.feel like   感觉像

15.used to   过去常常

16.get/be used to   适应,习惯于

17.compare...with...   与……相比较

18.depend on   依靠, 取决于

19.be senior to   比……年长

20.aside from   除了……之外


二、词汇用法

native adj.本国的;本地的 n.本地人;本国人

(1)one's native country/land/language 某人的祖国/故乡/母语

be native to   原产于……

(2)be a native of...   ……的人;生长于……的动物或植物

attitude n.态度;看法;姿态

attitude to/towards... 对……的态度/看法

have/take a(n)...attitude to/towards... 对……持/采取……的态度


despite prep.即使;尽管,为介词,后常跟名词或v.­ing

even if 即使;尽管, 为连词, 后跟从句


refer to提及;查阅;参考;把…称作…;指的是

→reference n. 提及;参考;查阅

refer to...as...  把……称作……


based adj.以(某事)为基础的→basic adj.基本的;基础的

(1)base...on/upon  把……建立在……的基础上

be based on/upon   以……为基础/依据

(2)at the base of   以……为基点;在……的底部


date back(to...)追溯(到……)

(1)date back to=date from  追溯到……

(2)out of date   过时的, 陈旧的


variety n.(植物、语言等的)变体;异体;多样化→various adj.   不同的;各种各样的→vary vt.&vi.   改变;变化

(1)a variety of=varieties of 种类繁多的

(2)for various reasons   由于种种原因

(3)vary from...to...   从…到…不等;在…到…之间变动


major adj.主要的;重要的;大的 n.主修课程;主修学生 vi.主修;专门研究

→majority n.   大多数;→minority 少数....

(1)major in      主修……;以……为专业

(2)the majority of   大多数……

be in the majority   构成大部分/大多数

means n.方式;方法;途径

(1)a means of communication一种通讯/交流工具

(2)by this means   通过这种方法

by means of   用……办法;借助……

by no means 决不,一点也不(位于句首时,句子用部分倒装)

(3)mean vi.   意味着

mean doing sth.   意味着做某事

mean to do sth 打算做某事


regard   n.尊重;关注 vt.把……视为;看待

(1)regard/consider...as... 认为……是……

(2)have high/no regard for...   高度关注/无视……

with/in regard to sth.   关于某事

appreciate   vt.欣赏;重视;感激;领会vi.增值→appreciation n.欣赏;感激

(1)appreciate+n./pron./v.­ing   重视/感激……

I would appreciate it if...   假如……,我将不胜感激

(2)express one's appreciation/thanks to sb.for sth. 表达对某人的感激之情


struggle   n.&vi.斗争;奋斗;搏斗

struggle for      努力争取……;为……而斗争

struggle against/with   与……作斗争

struggle to do sth.   努力做某事

struggle to one's feet   挣扎着站起来


point of view 观点;看法

from one's point of viewin one's view/opinionas far as sb.is concerned 依某人来看

equal   n.同等的人;相等物 adj.相同的;equally adv. →同样地;平等地

(1)be equal to       等于

be equal to sth./doing sth.   胜任(做)某事

(2)A equals B in sth.   A在某方面比得上B


demand   n.要求;需求vt.强烈要求;需要vi.查问

→demanding adj.   高要求的;要求严格的

(1)be in (great) demand   (迫切)需求

meet/satisfy one's demands   满足某人的需求

(2)demand to do sth.   要求做某事

demand that...(should) do...   要求……


description   n.描写(文字);形容→describe vt. 描述;形容;描绘

(1)be beyond description 无法形容,难以描述

(2)give a description of...   介绍……


relate   vt.联系;讲述→relation n.关系

(1)relate sth.to sb.   向某人讲述

relate to   与……相关;涉及;谈到

(2)be related to   与……有关

(3)in relation to   关于


三、句型

This/That is/was a time when...这是一个……的时期

There was a time when...曾有一段时间……

This was a time when I hated to go to school.

这是我最讨厌上学的时候。

There was a time when I didn't get along well with my classmates.

有一段时间我和同学们相处得不好。


no matter+特殊疑问词(如who/what/where/when等)”均可引导让步状语从句,

表示不管;无论...,可与特殊疑问词­ever等词互换。

No matter how difficult the problem is,we should not lose heart.

= However difficult the problem is,we should not lose heart.无论多么困难的问题,我们不应该丧失信心。


as 引导状语从句, 意为“随着”

As China plays a greater role in global affairs,an increasing number of international students are beginning to appreciate China's culture and history through this amazing language.随着中国在全球事务中扮演着更为重要的角色,越来越多的国际学生开始通过汉语这一奇妙的语言了解和欣赏中国的文化和历史。


the+比较级, the+比较级越……, 就越……

the more...,the less...     越……, 越不……

the more...the better...   ……越多,……就越好

The more he explained,the more confused I   became.

他越解释我就越迷惑。

As is known to us,the lazier a person is,the more things he needs to do tomorrow.

众所周知,一个人越懒, 他明天要做的事情越多。

The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you will make.

你越仔细,你就会越少犯错误。


have trouble with sth./in doing sth. 做……上有困难

have difficulty with sth.   在……上有困难

have difficulty(in)doing sth.   做某事有困难


I hope we won't have any trouble with each other.希望我们彼此之间不会有什么不愉快的事情。

I had no difficulty in making myself understood.我毫不费力地表达了自己的意思。


动词+疑问词+to do 结构

I can't keep all the new vocabulary straight in my head,and I certainly can't remember how to use them all properly.

我不能把所有的新词汇都记在脑子里,当然我也记不得如何正确的使用它们。

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